Thuật ngữ tiếng Anh

Thảo luận trong 'Các thuyết tâm lý học' bắt đầu bởi Wind, 8/11/15.

  1. Wind

    Wind Thành viên

    Tham gia ngày:
    1/8/15
    Bài viết:
    16
    Đọc sách Organizational behaviour thấy cũng nhiều cái hay, trong phần về hành vi cá nhân có giải thích nhiều thuật ngữ tiếng Anh mà các bạn gặp nhiều khi đọc về tâm lý, hành vi con người (viết dưới góc độ kinh tế nên có thể hơi khác với cách giải thích trong tâm lý học chuyên ngành nhưng mình nghĩ nó dễ hiểu và phổ thông hơn) nên chép lại ra đây cho ai thích tham khảo thì xem:
    • Personality: The relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that influences the way an individual interacts with his/her environment
    • Perception: The process of interpreting the messages of our senses to provide order & meaning to the environment. Perception has 3 components – a perceiver, a target & the situation. Basic biases in person perception: Primacy & recency effects (Primacy effect – The tendency for a perceiver to rely on early cues/first impressions. Recency effect. The tendency for a perceiver to rely on recent cues/last impressions), Reliance on central traits (People tend to organize their perceptions around central traits, personal characteristics of a target person that are of particular interest to a perceiver), Implicit personality theories (Personal theories that people have about which personality characteristics go together), Projection (The tendency for perceivers to attribute their own thoughts & feelings to others) & Stereotyping /*từ này mọi người hay dùng này :))*/ (The tendency to generalize about people in a social category & ignore variations among them.)
    • Một số cái có self-...: Self-monitoring - The extent to which people observe & regulate how they appear & behave in social settings & relationships. Self-esteem - The degree to which a person has a positive self-evaluation. General self-efficacy - is a general trait that refers to an individual’s belief in his/her ability to perform successfully in a variety of challenging situations. Core self-evaluations - A broad personality concept that consists of more specific traits (self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control & neuroticism) that reflect the evaluations people hold about themselves & their self-worth. Self-management - The use of learning principles to manage one’s own behaviour
     
  2. Ngọc Tiến

    Ngọc Tiến The lazy rational

    Tham gia ngày:
    12/11/14
    Bài viết:
    235
    MBTI:
    INTP
    Enneagram:
    5w6
    nói chung theo như bạn còn nhớ thì phần lớn là đúng đấy, không có khác biệt gì mấy đâu.

    Nhưng mà phần lớn cái mọi người thường hiểu là normal everyday language, thường có trong từ điển. Còn từ chuyên ngành thì sẽ phải hiểu khác hơn.

    Vậy nên khi nghe người ngoài dùng reliability và validity, thì bạn cũng chỉ hiểu theo nghĩa thông dụng thôi. Còn ở trong tâm lý thì phải theo định nghĩa riêng.

    À mà đôi khi cũng thấy dùng từ lung tung quá như type với trait. Là 2 thứ khác nhau nhưng mà thấy cứ đánh đồng nên nhớ có bữa bạn cũng lên tiếng đính chính lại...
     
    Last edited: 8/11/15
  3. Wind

    Wind Thành viên

    Tham gia ngày:
    1/8/15
    Bài viết:
    16
    Không biết nhét vào đâu nên để tạm vào đây, ad nào thấy không hợp lý thì move nó đi chỗ khác giùm nhé :D
    Dưới là 1 đoạn mình tóm tắt từ quyển Organizational behaviour về khác biệt trong cách giao tiếp, có thể dẫn đến hiểu lầm của nam & nữ (bản thân thấy khá đúng :v)

    § Getting credit: Men are more likely to blow their horn about something good they have done, compared with women

    § Confidence & boasting: Men tend to be more boastful about themselves & their capabilities & to minimize their doubts, compared with women, who downplay their certainty. As a result, men tend to be perceived as more confident.

    § Asking question: Most people know that men do not like to ask for directions when they are lost. This is because they realize that asking questions can put them in a one-down position & reflect negatively on them. Therefore, men are less likely than women to ask questions in situations that can put them in a one-down position & threaten their independence.

    § Apologies: For women, apologies are part of a ritual that is used to establish rapport. Men avoid such ritual apologies because for them it is a sign of weakness that can place them in a one-down position ;))

    § Feedback: Women will often buffer criticism by beginning with praise as a way to save face for the person receiving the criticism and avoid putting them in a one-down position. Men tend to be much more blunt & straightforward. These differences can lead to misunderstandings, as when a man interprets a women’s praise, rather than the criticism, as the main message. =))

    § Compliments: Women are more likely to provide a compliment such as Great presentation or Good job. Men are more likely to interpret the question literally & provide a critique, not realizing that all that is expected is a compliment

    § Ritual opposition: Men often use ritual opposition or fighting as a form of communication & the exchange of ideas. This often takes the form of attacking others’ point of view, challenging them in public & being combative & argumentative. For women, this type of ritual opposition is seen as a personal attack & something to be avoided. Many women have difficulty working in such an environment & tend to come across as insecure & unable to defend their ideas :)

    § Managing up and down: Many women believe that in order to be recognized and rewarded, what matters most is doing a good job. Unfortunately, what also matters is who you communicate with & what you discuss. Men spend much more time communicating with their superiors & talking about their achievements. When in position of power, women tend to downplay their superiority, leading others to believe that they are not capable of projecting their authority.

    § Indirectness: In some places (e.g. North America), persons in positions of authority are expected to give direct orders when asking subordinates to do something. Women in positions of authority tend to be indirect when giving orders.

    Ngoài lề chút, có ad nào tiết lộ thông tin cá nhân của mình như email ra ngoài không vậy?
     
  4. dfuz6

    dfuz6 Call My Name

    Tham gia ngày:
    13/11/14
    Bài viết:
    863
    MBTI:
    INTJ
    Enneagram:
    6w5 8w9 2w3
  5. rogp10

    rogp10 Con nhà người ta

    Tham gia ngày:
    29/8/15
    Bài viết:
    273
    MBTI:
    INTP - LII
    Enneagram:
    9w1
    Phần so sánh giống như đang so sánh phương Tây vs phương Đông :D
     
  6. vincymear

    vincymear Guest

    cảm ơn ! bài viết hữu ích
     

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